The climate change crisis generally refers to recent and future alterations to the Earth’s climate systems that can be attributed to human activities.1 Foremost among these activities are the burning of fossil fuels, exploitation of natural resources and produc- tion-consumption of energy and industrial goods, all of which are high emitters of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). The relentless warming of the global climate as a result of increased GHGs in the atmosphere has already led to disruptions in seasonal weather and precipitation patterns, melting glaciers, changes in hydrological cycles and an increase in extreme weather events, with serious consequences for ecosystems, agricul- tural production, food and water security, and the livelihoods of rural and urban poor communities throughout the world.
Land and water are central elements in the climate crisis. Industrialization and economic growth depend greatly on the exploitation of land and water, and their cap- ture to serve energy production, mining, industry, agriculture, technology parks, tour- ism, recreation and urban expansion, continues unabated in every region of the world. Land cover and land-use changes are the oldest global impacts of humankind and result in significant changes to the amount of carbon that is stored and released into the atmo- sphere. Forests and wetlands store more carbon than grasslands, which in turn store more carbon than croplands.